If you insist that Jane Austen's influences must have been women, then those are the usual suspects, but the one I think everyone misses - the one that I think may have been the most important is Madame de La Fayette (1634-1693)
Madame de La Fayette (1634-1693)There was a slightly younger woman author, Mary Wollstonecraft's more-famous daughter (1797-1851).
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
Our Lady could not have known of Shelley, whose first major work, Frankenstein (1818), appeared the year after Jane's death. (Well, Jane Austen might have heard the gossip.) You can find my comments on Mary Shelley's novels, Frankenstein, Matilda, and The Last Man on the first page of this posting. I am generally very positive about Mary Shelley; her Frankenstein and The Last Man are important visions even if two centuries premature.
I have seen one estimate that more than two hundred women published novels before Jane Austen. In fact, Jane Austen was not even the first woman in her own family to publish a novel. One of the more important literary critics of the day was a woman; that was Madame Anne Louisa Germaine de Staël (1766-1817.
Madame Anne Louisa Germaine de Staël (1766-1817 who was a novelist at times but was at her best when writing about political philosophy or in the sphere of literary criticism. (She resides in infamy at this web site because of something she should not have said about Jane Austen.)
Given the wide acceptance of women writers and novelists, the question arises as to why Jane Austen published anonymously. First of all, notice that while Jane Austen did not affix her name to her novels, she did nothing to hide her sex. I mean, her first publication, Sense and Sensibility, was signed, "By a Lady." I don't know the answer to the question, I have seen several speculations. The one I favor is that our Lady did not want the public to think that an Austen woman had to publish novels in order to earn a living. Jane Austen did not want us to imagine that her brothers were not supporting her as, indeed, they were. (However, she was as pleased as punch to rake in those proceeds.)